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故事复述有套路  

2016-11-29 14:13:52|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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听说考试的故事复述部分,要求学生听两次故事,然后再用自己的语言复述出来。这一部分考察学生的听力、速记、语言表达等综合能力。看起来似乎比前面两部分更难,但实际上这部分反而是中层学生必争分的部分。

首先,此部分给出了中文提示,包括故事梗概和关键词;即便学生听不太懂故事,至少可以凭借翻译中文句子得分。其次,既然是故事复述,也即是把别人写好的文章再说一次,相比起“命题作文”少了一些难度;再次,这部分并不如“角色扮演”一样,“答案是唯一的”,只要听懂了,可以有多种表达方式;最后,此部分是按故事信息点得分,这也是学生能拿分的关键原因。于是本人结合在实际教学中的情况,针对学生存在可能失分的情况,找到应对的方法,以下提出来讨论。

一、高考题有套路

从2011年至2016年,除了2015年外,其他每一年都有一套题是这样的套路:“有人晕倒了,Tom救了他(她)”。而故事的套路一般有这样一些共通的情节:

1.介绍晕倒的人与救人者的关系。(根据实际情节而定,但两者一般是有关系,有些年份是晕倒或伤者养的动物)

2.有人晕倒了或受伤了,这一情节一般被描述为“被发现躺在地上”(He / She was found lying on the floor.)

3.救人,一般是打电话找医生 (called the doctor at once/ was sent to the hospital at once)

4.人得救了(He / She was saved in time)

二、按套路编故事

了解了故事发展套路后,学生在平时练习时,不妨学会从故事概要中挖掘隐藏信息,再联系关键词进行想象。因为所给出的故事一般与日常生活比较贴近,可以用常理进行推断,思想也是正面健康的。学生如果能做好“断句”和“挖掘”信息,即使没有全部听懂,也能争取多拿分。

下面以高考题为例进行说明。

例1:2011年A套题的故事概要为

Uncle John 独居,某日侄子Tom得知叔叔晕倒,请来医生救了他。

关键词包括了 alone; nephew; call; neighbor; save

这句概要看起来很短,但实际上包含如下6个意思:

1. Uncle John 独居;

2. Uncle John有个叫Tom的侄子,或者 Tom是Uncle John的侄子;

3. 叔叔晕倒了;

4. Tom知道这件事;(结合关键词neighbor)

5. Tom打电话给医生;

6. 医生救了Uncle John。

即使学生因为紧张等其他原因听不懂故事,按照以上内容进行复述,也能讲出大概3到4个信息点;而且信息点1、2、5、6还有相应的关键词,又因为已经断成短句,翻译的难度大大降低。如果能观察到关键词还有neighbor这一人物,联想到叔叔的晕倒可能是由neighbor发现,并告知Tom的话,其实整个故事的轮廓就非常清晰了。

附2011年A套题Part C 故事复述要点:

1. Uncle John lived alone at the age of 85 and Tom was his nephew, who often contacted him.

2. Tom usually called his uncle to say hello to him and check if everything was OK.

3. One day, Uncle John didn’t answer Tom’s call.

4. Tom then went back to work and then called again.

5. But there was still no answer.

6. Tom was anxious and asked John’s neighbor to see what happened.

7. The neighbor told Tom that Uncle John was found lying on the bathroom floor.

8. The neighbor couldn’t even wake him up.

9. Tom called the doctor for help immediately and went to the Uncle John’s house.

10. Finally, Uncle John was save in time.

例2: 2012年D套题的故事概要为

布朗夫妇收养的袋鼠救了受伤后倒在地上的Mr. Brown。

关键词包括了 kangaroo; adopt; save; fall; bark

这一故事概要比较简短,能挖掘的信息不多。如果学生直接使用中文的思维,直接翻译出一个长句子,不利于得分。特别对于中下层的学生来说,翻译出来的句子一般会有不少语法错误。但如果学生能学会断句,再加以挖掘的话,我们发现这一故事概要包含了如下信息:

1.布朗夫妇收养了一只袋鼠;(联系关键词)

2.有一天,Mr. Brown受伤了;

3. Mr. Brown躺在地上;

4.袋鼠看见了,吠叫(这个是推断信息,同时联系了关键词bark);

5. Mr. Brown得救了。

附2012年D套题Part C 故事复述要点:

1. Mr. and Mrs. Brown were farmers in South Australia.

2. They had a kangaroo called Lulu.

3. Ten years ago Mr. Brown adopted Lulu.

4. Lulu often followed Mr. Brown around the farm.

5. A heavy branch fell on Mr. Brown and Mr. Brown was hurt.

6. Mr. Brown fell to the ground and didn’t know what happened next.

7. Lulu didn’t leave Mr. Brown and barked like a dog.

8. Mrs. Brown heard Lulu’s bark and found Mr. Brown on the ground.   

9. Mrs. Brown sent Mr. Brown to the hospital and Mr. Brown was saved.

10. Mr. Brown planned to take Lulu everywhere.                                                                                                                      

例3:2013年A:

Tom 给Brown夫人送信时无人答应,从窗户进屋后看到她躺在地上。

关键词:postman ;deliver a letter; house ; milk; lie

这篇断句挖掘后,我们可以发现包括了如下信息:

1.Tom是邮递员;(结合关键词postman)

2.Tom给Mrs. Brown送信;

3.无人答应;

4.门上锁了(这是推断信息,因为Tom是从窗户进入屋子的);

5.Tom从窗户进屋;

6.Tom看到Mrs. Brown躺在地上;

7.Mrs. Brown得救了。

这一故事因为梗概给出的信息较多,我们能挖掘的信息点也比较多,而且断句后都是比较简短的句子,学生如能翻译出来,这篇故事的轮廓也是非常清晰了。

附2013年A套题Part C 故事复述要点:

1. Tom was a postman. Whenever Tom delivered a letter to Mrs. Brown, he finished his work late.

2. Tom didn’t mind this, for Mrs. Brown always invited him in.

3. When entering the gate, Tom didn’t see her in the garden as usual.

4. Tom went to the back and found the kitchen was locked.

5. Tom returned to the front and knocked, but there was no answer.

6. This was strange since Mrs. Brown seldom left the house.

7. Her milk was still at the door, which made Tom think she was ill.

8. Tom walked round the house and found an open window.

9. Tom went inside through the window and found she was lying on the floor.

10. Tom could do nothing but call for an ambulance.

例4: 2014年A套题的故事概要为

公共汽车司机突然晕倒,Tom及时刹车,救了全车人。

1.Tom坐公共汽车;(如果不在公共汽车上,Tom无法及时刹车)

2.在路上,司机突然晕倒了;

3.无人驾车,车失控(这是推断信息);

4.大家都很害怕,但不知道怎么办(这是推断信息);

5.Tom及时刹车;

6.Tom救了全车的人。

附2014年A套题Part C 故事复述要点:

1. One morning, Tom was on the school bus with other kids.

2. But then the bus driver, who was feeling unwell, suddenly passed out.

3. It happened very quickly, and the bus began to be out of control. 

4. All the kids were afraid and they screamed .

5. But Tom was calm because he knew a lot about cars and often helped his father repair his car.

6. So Tom ran to the front of the bus, and pushed the bus driver to one side.

7. He stepped on the brakes and stopped the bus. 

8. Nobody was hurt, and the story of Tom saving the kids on the bus became well known.

9. He even appeared on television, and his school gave him an award.

10. Tom’s father was proud of him, and said he’d teach Tom to drive when Tom was old enough

以上四个例子是在是关于人“受伤”的故事套路,以及挖掘信息的方法。当这些情节成为套路后,播放听力时,当听到跟我们预测的一样的情节时,我们需要记的内容相对就少了,只需要将与我们听到的不一样的内容记下来即可。而且因为故事发展顺序已经比较清楚,学生在复述时思路也会比较清晰。

只是考试准备的时间非常短,因此我们在平时练习时要熟练“拆句”“断句”,考试时才能得心应手。不知道经过上面的分析,你是否学会掌握了这个方法?下面给出2016年的一套高考题供练习。

2016年E篇梗概:

Mary露营时摔伤了腿,她的狗在公路上设法找人帮助她。

关键词:companion(伙伴), camping(露营), break(使……骨折), driver(司机), recover(康复)

隐藏的信息:

 解题参考:

这篇经过断句和联系词进行想像后,包括了如下信息:

1. Mary有一小伙伴,它是一只小狗。(联系关键词companion)

2.Mary带着小狗去露营。(没带着它去,则下文无法展开)

3. Mary摔伤了腿,倒在地上。

4. 狗跑出去,寻找帮助。

5. 一位司机跟着小狗,找到Mary。(联系关键词,狗找的人极有可能是“driver”)

6. 司机看到Mary受伤,帮助她。

7. 最后Mary康复了。(联系关键词)

附2016年E套题Part C 故事复述要点:

1. Mary kept a dog and always considered him a good companion.  

2. One day, Mary went to a big mountain with the dog for camping.

3. Unfortunately, when she was taking some pictures, she fell down from a rock and broke her leg.

4. The dog ran a long way to the main road, trying to stop passing cars, but he failed.

5. He hurried back to the camp to see how Mary was.

6. Again, the dog went back to the road, trying to ask for help.

7. Finally, a driver stopped and followed the dog to where Mary was.

8. The driver found Mary lying on the ground, pale and weak.

9. He sent her to a hospital immediately.

10. Three months later, Mary recovered and she knew she owed much to the dog.

注:划线部分为拆分句子,寻找隐藏信息时,跟原文吻合的部分

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